Shahnameh is one of the most prominent works of Persian poetry, which includes Iranian history and Persian Renaissance. This book has been written by Ferdowsi about the history of ancient Iran as well as the Arab invasion to Iran. In this article, we intend to explain in addition to introducing Ferdowsi and explaining his life about Shahnameh and its significance in Iranian culture
Arab Invasion to Iran
One of the most terrible attacks on Iran was the Arab invasion of Iran. The entrance of Islam to Iran has permanently transformed the lives of Iranians in various fields of political, military, economic and social life, and created a dramatic and profound transformation in which the Iranian people separated from their ancient times and began a new era.
The Arab invasion of Iran brought in irreparable damage to Iran in the cultural, economic and historical context. One of the catastrophes of Iranian history was the tearing of the Bahrestan carpet. This carpet was woven from silk and emeralds and jewelry in 900 square meters (30 meters in 30 meters). It was an example of Iranian art and majesty. The carpet was captured during the Arab invasion to Iran and then torn. Thousands of Iranian books were destroyed and burned during the Arab invasion of Iran.
“Two centuries of silence” was written by Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub about the history of Iran in the first two centuries after the domination of Muslim Arabs, which was first published in 1330.
Abolqasem Hassan Mansour, known as Abolqasem Ferdowsi, was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran. He was born in one of the villages of Khorasan, Bagh, in (940 AD, and died in the year 1020 AD at the age of eighty. His father was a peasant from Tous, who had considerable wealth and position. Ferdowsi didn't need anyone in a young age with the income earned from his father's estate, but gradually he lost the property and became poor. Ferdowsi began writing Shahnameh in 977 AD.
Little is known about Ferdowsi's early life. The poet had a wife, who was probably literate and came from the same landowners class. He had a son, who died at the age of 37, and was mourned by the poet in an elegy which he inserted into the Shahnameh.
Ferdowsi was buried in his own garden, burial in the cemetery of Tus having been forbidden by a local cleric. A Ghaznavid governor of Khorasan constructed a mausoleum over the grave and it became a revered site. The tomb, which had fallen into decay, was rebuilt between 1928 and 1934 by the Society for the National Heritage of Iran on the orders of Rezā Shāh, and has now become the equivalent of a national shrine.
Why Shahnameh is important?
The epic is one of the oldest forms of poetry that has been created after the first poetries and hymns left by mankind. In the world, there are three great heroic epics: in Greece, the Iliad and the Odyssey, and then the Hindu epic (Ramayana and Mahabharata), and the third epic role of the world is the Shahnameh Ferdowsi of Iran.
These three epic acts relate to the Aryan race that has been divided in the past, separated by branch, and each branch is deployed in a land. So these three epics are similar to each other, which is debatable. The main cause of such similarities was the true source of the unique race of these three nations.
Before the Aryans migrated to the Iranian plateau, there were relatives of different civilizations in Iran. The Aryans were Indians and European peoples who lived in the north of the Iranian plateau. The migration of the Aryans to the Iranian plateau was a gradual migration that began at the end of the Neolithic period (7,000 BC) and lasted until 4,000 BC.
Achaemenid is the first kingdom of Iran. The Sassanids were the Persian Empire in the years 224 to 651 AD. The vast Sassanid Empire, extending from the Sindh River to the Red Sea, was weakened by internal and external problems. The last king of this dynasty was Yazdgerd III. During his time, Arab Muslims attacked Iran and defeated Iranians in the wars of Qadisiyah, Madan, Jalula and Nahavand, and thus the Sassanid government was eliminated.
When Ferdowsi wrote the Shahnameh, the Persian language was about to degenerate, and many books of that time were written in Arabic. In Shahnameh, the history of many kingdoms of Iran and ancient Iranian stories are mentioned. Shahnameh is one of the most prominent works of Persian poetry, which includes Iranian history and Persian Renaissance. Ferdowsi spends thirty years of his life writing this masterpiece which is firmly believed that it was because of this work that Farsi language was saved from demise and oblivion.
Why the name is Iran? Not Persia?
In April 1314, according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the government's request, the official Iranian name (instead of Press, Persia, etc.) was selected for our country. Previously, Iran was called Press (French), Persia (English) and Perissi (Greek). The name given today to "Iran" was pronounced "Eran" more than 600 years ago. The meaning of the word "Iran" is the land of free people. In Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, the word "Iran" has been used repeatedly. The word "Iran" is very ancient and was referred to this land before the Aryans came.
Ferdowsi's Commemoration Day
The day of May 15 is named Ferdowsi's Commemoration Day. Each year on this day, the ceremonies of Ferdowsi and Shahnameh will be held at universities and research institutions.
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